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<?php

/**
 * This module documents the main interface with the OpenID consumer
 * library.  The only part of the library which has to be used and
 * isn't documented in full here is the store required to create an
 * Auth_OpenID_Consumer instance.  More on the abstract store type and
 * concrete implementations of it that are provided in the
 * documentation for the Auth_OpenID_Consumer constructor.
 *
 * OVERVIEW
 *
 * The OpenID identity verification process most commonly uses the
 * following steps, as visible to the user of this library:
 *
 *   1. The user enters their OpenID into a field on the consumer's
 *      site, and hits a login button.
 *   2. The consumer site discovers the user's OpenID server using the
 *      YADIS protocol.
 *   3. The consumer site sends the browser a redirect to the identity
 *      server.  This is the authentication request as described in
 *      the OpenID specification.
 *   4. The identity server's site sends the browser a redirect back
 *      to the consumer site.  This redirect contains the server's
 *      response to the authentication request.
 *
 * The most important part of the flow to note is the consumer's site
 * must handle two separate HTTP requests in order to perform the full
 * identity check.
 *
 * LIBRARY DESIGN
 * 
 * This consumer library is designed with that flow in mind.  The goal
 * is to make it as easy as possible to perform the above steps
 * securely.
 *
 * At a high level, there are two important parts in the consumer
 * library.  The first important part is this module, which contains
 * the interface to actually use this library.  The second is the
 * Auth_OpenID_Interface class, which describes the interface to use
 * if you need to create a custom method for storing the state this
 * library needs to maintain between requests.
 *
 * In general, the second part is less important for users of the
 * library to know about, as several implementations are provided
 * which cover a wide variety of situations in which consumers may use
 * the library.
 *
 * This module contains a class, Auth_OpenID_Consumer, with methods
 * corresponding to the actions necessary in each of steps 2, 3, and 4
 * described in the overview.  Use of this library should be as easy
 * as creating an Auth_OpenID_Consumer instance and calling the
 * methods appropriate for the action the site wants to take.
 *
 * STORES AND DUMB MODE
 *
 * OpenID is a protocol that works best when the consumer site is able
 * to store some state.  This is the normal mode of operation for the
 * protocol, and is sometimes referred to as smart mode.  There is
 * also a fallback mode, known as dumb mode, which is available when
 * the consumer site is not able to store state.  This mode should be
 * avoided when possible, as it leaves the implementation more
 * vulnerable to replay attacks.
 *
 * The mode the library works in for normal operation is determined by
 * the store that it is given.  The store is an abstraction that
 * handles the data that the consumer needs to manage between http
 * requests in order to operate efficiently and securely.
 *
 * Several store implementation are provided, and the interface is
 * fully documented so that custom stores can be used as well.  See
 * the documentation for the Auth_OpenID_Consumer class for more
 * information on the interface for stores.  The implementations that
 * are provided allow the consumer site to store the necessary data in
 * several different ways, including several SQL databases and normal
 * files on disk.
 *
 * There is an additional concrete store provided that puts the system
 * in dumb mode.  This is not recommended, as it removes the library's
 * ability to stop replay attacks reliably.  It still uses time-based
 * checking to make replay attacks only possible within a small
 * window, but they remain possible within that window.  This store
 * should only be used if the consumer site has no way to retain data
 * between requests at all.
 *
 * IMMEDIATE MODE
 *
 * In the flow described above, the user may need to confirm to the
 * lidentity server that it's ok to authorize his or her identity.
 * The server may draw pages asking for information from the user
 * before it redirects the browser back to the consumer's site.  This
 * is generally transparent to the consumer site, so it is typically
 * ignored as an implementation detail.
 *
 * There can be times, however, where the consumer site wants to get a
 * response immediately.  When this is the case, the consumer can put
 * the library in immediate mode.  In immediate mode, there is an
 * extra response possible from the server, which is essentially the
 * server reporting that it doesn't have enough information to answer
 * the question yet.
 *
 * USING THIS LIBRARY
 *
 * Integrating this library into an application is usually a
 * relatively straightforward process.  The process should basically
 * follow this plan:
 *
 * Add an OpenID login field somewhere on your site.  When an OpenID
 * is entered in that field and the form is submitted, it should make
 * a request to the your site which includes that OpenID URL.
 *
 * First, the application should instantiate the Auth_OpenID_Consumer
 * class using the store of choice (Auth_OpenID_FileStore or one of
 * the SQL-based stores).  If the application has a custom
 * session-management implementation, an object implementing the
 * {@link Auth_Yadis_PHPSession} interface should be passed as the
 * second parameter.  Otherwise, the default uses $_SESSION.
 *
 * Next, the application should call the Auth_OpenID_Consumer object's
 * 'begin' method.  This method takes the OpenID URL.  The 'begin'
 * method returns an Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest object.
 *
 * Next, the application should call the 'redirectURL' method of the
 * Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest object.  The 'return_to' URL parameter is
 * the URL that the OpenID server will send the user back to after
 * attempting to verify his or her identity.  The 'trust_root' is the
 * URL (or URL pattern) that identifies your web site to the user when
 * he or she is authorizing it.  Send a redirect to the resulting URL
 * to the user's browser.
 *
 * That's the first half of the authentication process.  The second
 * half of the process is done after the user's ID server sends the
 * user's browser a redirect back to your site to complete their
 * login.
 *
 * When that happens, the user will contact your site at the URL given
 * as the 'return_to' URL to the Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest::redirectURL
 * call made above.  The request will have several query parameters
 * added to the URL by the identity server as the information
 * necessary to finish the request.
 *
 * Lastly, instantiate an Auth_OpenID_Consumer instance as above and
 * call its 'complete' method, passing in all the received query
 * arguments.
 *
 * There are multiple possible return types possible from that
 * method. These indicate the whether or not the login was successful,
 * and include any additional information appropriate for their type.
 *
 * PHP versions 4 and 5
 *
 * LICENSE: See the COPYING file included in this distribution.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 * @author JanRain, Inc. <openid@janrain.com>
 * @copyright 2005-2008 Janrain, Inc.
 * @license http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Apache
 */

/**
 * Require utility classes and functions for the consumer.
 */
require_once "Auth/OpenID.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/Message.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/HMAC.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/Association.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/CryptUtil.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/DiffieHellman.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/KVForm.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/Nonce.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/Discover.php";
require_once "Auth/OpenID/URINorm.php";
require_once "Auth/Yadis/Manager.php";
require_once "Auth/Yadis/XRI.php";

/**
 * This is the status code returned when the complete method returns
 * successfully.
 */
define('Auth_OpenID_SUCCESS', 'success');

/**
 * Status to indicate cancellation of OpenID authentication.
 */
define('Auth_OpenID_CANCEL', 'cancel');

/**
 * This is the status code completeAuth returns when the value it
 * received indicated an invalid login.
 */
define('Auth_OpenID_FAILURE', 'failure');

/**
 * This is the status code completeAuth returns when the
 * {@link Auth_OpenID_Consumer} instance is in immediate mode, and the
 * identity server sends back a URL to send the user to to complete his
 * or her login.
 */
define('Auth_OpenID_SETUP_NEEDED', 'setup needed');

/**
 * This is the status code beginAuth returns when the page fetched
 * from the entered OpenID URL doesn't contain the necessary link tags
 * to function as an identity page.
 */
define('Auth_OpenID_PARSE_ERROR', 'parse error');

/**
 * An OpenID consumer implementation that performs discovery and does
 * session management.  See the Consumer.php file documentation for
 * more information.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_Consumer {

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    var $discoverMethod = 'Auth_OpenID_discover';

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    var $session_key_prefix = "_openid_consumer_";

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    var $_token_suffix = "last_token";

    /**
     * Initialize a Consumer instance.
     *
     * You should create a new instance of the Consumer object with
     * every HTTP request that handles OpenID transactions.
     *
     * @param Auth_OpenID_OpenIDStore $store This must be an object
     * that implements the interface in {@link
     * Auth_OpenID_OpenIDStore}.  Several concrete implementations are
     * provided, to cover most common use cases.  For stores backed by
     * MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQLite, see the {@link
     * Auth_OpenID_SQLStore} class and its sublcasses.  For a
     * filesystem-backed store, see the {@link Auth_OpenID_FileStore}
     * module.  As a last resort, if it isn't possible for the server
     * to store state at all, an instance of {@link
     * Auth_OpenID_DumbStore} can be used.
     *
     * @param mixed $session An object which implements the interface
     * of the {@link Auth_Yadis_PHPSession} class.  Particularly, this
     * object is expected to have these methods: get($key), set($key),
     * $value), and del($key).  This defaults to a session object
     * which wraps PHP's native session machinery.  You should only
     * need to pass something here if you have your own sessioning
     * implementation.
     *
     * @param str $consumer_cls The name of the class to instantiate
     * when creating the internal consumer object.  This is used for
     * testing.
     */
    function Auth_OpenID_Consumer(&$store, $session = null,
                                  $consumer_cls = null)
    {
        if ($session === null) {
            $session = new Auth_Yadis_PHPSession();
        }

        $this->session =& $session;

        if ($consumer_cls !== null) {
            $this->consumer =& new $consumer_cls($store);
        } else {
            $this->consumer =& new Auth_OpenID_GenericConsumer($store);
        }

        $this->_token_key = $this->session_key_prefix . $this->_token_suffix;
    }

    /**
     * Used in testing to define the discovery mechanism.
     *
     * @access private
     */
    function getDiscoveryObject(&$session, $openid_url,
                                $session_key_prefix)
    {
        return new Auth_Yadis_Discovery($session, $openid_url,
                                        $session_key_prefix);
    }

    /**
     * Start the OpenID authentication process. See steps 1-2 in the
     * overview at the top of this file.
     *
     * @param string $user_url Identity URL given by the user. This
     * method performs a textual transformation of the URL to try and
     * make sure it is normalized. For example, a user_url of
     * example.com will be normalized to http://example.com/
     * normalizing and resolving any redirects the server might issue.
     *
     * @param bool $anonymous True if the OpenID request is to be sent
     * to the server without any identifier information.  Use this
     * when you want to transport data but don't want to do OpenID
     * authentication with identifiers.
     *
     * @return Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest $auth_request An object
     * containing the discovered information will be returned, with a
     * method for building a redirect URL to the server, as described
     * in step 3 of the overview. This object may also be used to add
     * extension arguments to the request, using its 'addExtensionArg'
     * method.
     */
    function begin($user_url, $anonymous=false)
    {
        $openid_url = $user_url;

        $disco = $this->getDiscoveryObject($this->session,
                                           $openid_url,
                                           $this->session_key_prefix);

        // Set the 'stale' attribute of the manager.  If discovery
        // fails in a fatal way, the stale flag will cause the manager
        // to be cleaned up next time discovery is attempted.

        $m = $disco->getManager();
        $loader = new Auth_Yadis_ManagerLoader();

        if ($m) {
            if ($m->stale) {
                $disco->destroyManager();
            } else {
                $m->stale = true;
                $disco->session->set($disco->session_key,
                                     serialize($loader->toSession($m)));
            }
        }

        $endpoint = $disco->getNextService($this->discoverMethod,
                                           $this->consumer->fetcher);

        // Reset the 'stale' attribute of the manager.
        $m =& $disco->getManager();
        if ($m) {
            $m->stale = false;
            $disco->session->set($disco->session_key,
                                 serialize($loader->toSession($m)));
        }

        if ($endpoint === null) {
            return null;
        } else {
            return $this->beginWithoutDiscovery($endpoint,
                                                $anonymous);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Start OpenID verification without doing OpenID server
     * discovery. This method is used internally by Consumer.begin
     * after discovery is performed, and exists to provide an
     * interface for library users needing to perform their own
     * discovery.
     *
     * @param Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpoint $endpoint an OpenID service
     * endpoint descriptor.
     *
     * @param bool anonymous Set to true if you want to perform OpenID
     * without identifiers.
     *
     * @return Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest $auth_request An OpenID
     * authentication request object.
     */
    function &beginWithoutDiscovery($endpoint, $anonymous=false)
    {
        $loader = new Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpointLoader();
        $auth_req = $this->consumer->begin($endpoint);
        $this->session->set($this->_token_key,
              $loader->toSession($auth_req->endpoint));
        if (!$auth_req->setAnonymous($anonymous)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
              "OpenID 1 requests MUST include the identifier " .
              "in the request.");
        }
        return $auth_req;
    }

    /**
     * Called to interpret the server's response to an OpenID
     * request. It is called in step 4 of the flow described in the
     * consumer overview.
     *
     * @param string $current_url The URL used to invoke the application.
     * Extract the URL from your application's web
     * request framework and specify it here to have it checked
     * against the openid.current_url value in the response.  If
     * the current_url URL check fails, the status of the
     * completion will be FAILURE.
     *
     * @param array $query An array of the query parameters (key =>
     * value pairs) for this HTTP request.  Defaults to null.  If
     * null, the GET or POST data are automatically gotten from the
     * PHP environment.  It is only useful to override $query for
     * testing.
     *
     * @return Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse $response A instance of an
     * Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse subclass. The type of response is
     * indicated by the status attribute, which will be one of
     * SUCCESS, CANCEL, FAILURE, or SETUP_NEEDED.
     */
    function complete($current_url, $query=null)
    {
        if ($current_url && !is_string($current_url)) {
            // This is ugly, but we need to complain loudly when
            // someone uses the API incorrectly.
            trigger_error("current_url must be a string; see NEWS file " .
                          "for upgrading notes.",
                          E_USER_ERROR);
        }

        if ($query === null) {
            $query = Auth_OpenID::getQuery();
        }

        $loader = new Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpointLoader();
        $endpoint_data = $this->session->get($this->_token_key);
        $endpoint =
            $loader->fromSession($endpoint_data);

        $message = Auth_OpenID_Message::fromPostArgs($query);
        $response = $this->consumer->complete($message, $endpoint, 
                                              $current_url);
        $this->session->del($this->_token_key);

        if (in_array($response->status, array(Auth_OpenID_SUCCESS,
                                              Auth_OpenID_CANCEL))) {
            if ($response->identity_url !== null) {
                $disco = $this->getDiscoveryObject($this->session,
                                                   $response->identity_url,
                                                   $this->session_key_prefix);
                $disco->cleanup(true);
            }
        }

        return $response;
    }
}

/**
 * A class implementing HMAC/DH-SHA1 consumer sessions.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellmanSHA1ConsumerSession {
    var $session_type = 'DH-SHA1';
    var $hash_func = 'Auth_OpenID_SHA1';
    var $secret_size = 20;
    var $allowed_assoc_types = array('HMAC-SHA1');

    function Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellmanSHA1ConsumerSession($dh = null)
    {
        if ($dh === null) {
            $dh = new Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellman();
        }

        $this->dh = $dh;
    }

    function getRequest()
    {
        $math =& Auth_OpenID_getMathLib();

        $cpub = $math->longToBase64($this->dh->public);

        $args = array('dh_consumer_public' => $cpub);

        if (!$this->dh->usingDefaultValues()) {
            $args = array_merge($args, array(
                'dh_modulus' =>
                     $math->longToBase64($this->dh->mod),
                'dh_gen' =>
                     $math->longToBase64($this->dh->gen)));
        }

        return $args;
    }

    function extractSecret($response)
    {
        if (!$response->hasKey(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                               'dh_server_public')) {
            return null;
        }

        if (!$response->hasKey(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                               'enc_mac_key')) {
            return null;
        }

        $math =& Auth_OpenID_getMathLib();

        $spub = $math->base64ToLong($response->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                                      'dh_server_public'));
        $enc_mac_key = base64_decode($response->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                                       'enc_mac_key'));

        return $this->dh->xorSecret($spub, $enc_mac_key, $this->hash_func);
    }
}

/**
 * A class implementing HMAC/DH-SHA256 consumer sessions.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellmanSHA256ConsumerSession extends
      Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellmanSHA1ConsumerSession {
    var $session_type = 'DH-SHA256';
    var $hash_func = 'Auth_OpenID_SHA256';
    var $secret_size = 32;
    var $allowed_assoc_types = array('HMAC-SHA256');
}

/**
 * A class implementing plaintext consumer sessions.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_PlainTextConsumerSession {
    var $session_type = 'no-encryption';
    var $allowed_assoc_types =  array('HMAC-SHA1', 'HMAC-SHA256');

    function getRequest()
    {
        return array();
    }

    function extractSecret($response)
    {
        if (!$response->hasKey(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'mac_key')) {
            return null;
        }

        return base64_decode($response->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                               'mac_key'));
    }
}

/**
 * Returns available session types.
 */
function Auth_OpenID_getAvailableSessionTypes()
{
    $types = array(
      'no-encryption' => 'Auth_OpenID_PlainTextConsumerSession',
      'DH-SHA1' => 'Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellmanSHA1ConsumerSession',
      'DH-SHA256' => 'Auth_OpenID_DiffieHellmanSHA256ConsumerSession');

    return $types;
}

/**
 * This class is the interface to the OpenID consumer logic.
 * Instances of it maintain no per-request state, so they can be
 * reused (or even used by multiple threads concurrently) as needed.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_GenericConsumer {
    /**
     * @access private
     */
    var $discoverMethod = 'Auth_OpenID_discover';

    /**
     * This consumer's store object.
     */
    var $store;

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    var $_use_assocs;

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    var $openid1_nonce_query_arg_name = 'janrain_nonce';

    /**
     * Another query parameter that gets added to the return_to for
     * OpenID 1; if the user's session state is lost, use this claimed
     * identifier to do discovery when verifying the response.
     */
    var $openid1_return_to_identifier_name = 'openid1_claimed_id';

    /**
     * This method initializes a new {@link Auth_OpenID_Consumer}
     * instance to access the library.
     *
     * @param Auth_OpenID_OpenIDStore $store This must be an object
     * that implements the interface in {@link Auth_OpenID_OpenIDStore}.
     * Several concrete implementations are provided, to cover most common use
     * cases.  For stores backed by MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQLite, see
     * the {@link Auth_OpenID_SQLStore} class and its sublcasses.  For a
     * filesystem-backed store, see the {@link Auth_OpenID_FileStore} module.
     * As a last resort, if it isn't possible for the server to store
     * state at all, an instance of {@link Auth_OpenID_DumbStore} can be used.
     *
     * @param bool $immediate This is an optional boolean value.  It
     * controls whether the library uses immediate mode, as explained
     * in the module description.  The default value is False, which
     * disables immediate mode.
     */
    function Auth_OpenID_GenericConsumer(&$store)
    {
        $this->store =& $store;
        $this->negotiator =& Auth_OpenID_getDefaultNegotiator();
        $this->_use_assocs = ($this->store ? true : false);

        $this->fetcher = Auth_Yadis_Yadis::getHTTPFetcher();

        $this->session_types = Auth_OpenID_getAvailableSessionTypes();
    }

    /**
     * Called to begin OpenID authentication using the specified
     * {@link Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpoint}.
     *
     * @access private
     */
    function begin($service_endpoint)
    {
        $assoc = $this->_getAssociation($service_endpoint);
        $r = new Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest($service_endpoint, $assoc);
        $r->return_to_args[$this->openid1_nonce_query_arg_name] =
            Auth_OpenID_mkNonce();

        if ($r->message->isOpenID1()) {
            $r->return_to_args[$this->openid1_return_to_identifier_name] =
                $r->endpoint->claimed_id;
        }

        return $r;
    }

    /**
     * Given an {@link Auth_OpenID_Message}, {@link
     * Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpoint} and optional return_to URL,
     * complete OpenID authentication.
     *
     * @access private
     */
    function complete($message, $endpoint, $return_to)
    {
        $mode = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'mode',
                                 '<no mode set>');

        $mode_methods = array(
                              'cancel' => '_complete_cancel',
                              'error' => '_complete_error',
                              'setup_needed' => '_complete_setup_needed',
                              'id_res' => '_complete_id_res',
                              );

        $method = Auth_OpenID::arrayGet($mode_methods, $mode,
                                        '_completeInvalid');

        return call_user_func_array(array(&$this, $method),
                                    array($message, $endpoint, $return_to));
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _completeInvalid($message, &$endpoint, $unused)
    {
        $mode = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'mode',
                                 '<No mode set>');

        return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                    sprintf("Invalid openid.mode '%s'", $mode));
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _complete_cancel($message, &$endpoint, $unused)
    {
        return new Auth_OpenID_CancelResponse($endpoint);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _complete_error($message, &$endpoint, $unused)
    {
        $error = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'error');
        $contact = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'contact');
        $reference = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'reference');

        return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint, $error,
                                               $contact, $reference);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _complete_setup_needed($message, &$endpoint, $unused)
    {
        if (!$message->isOpenID2()) {
            return $this->_completeInvalid($message, $endpoint);
        }

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        $user_setup_url = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS,
                                           'user_setup_url');
        return new Auth_OpenID_SetupNeededResponse($endpoint, $user_setup_url);
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    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _complete_id_res($message, &$endpoint, $return_to)
    {
        $user_setup_url = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS,
                                           'user_setup_url');

        if ($this->_checkSetupNeeded($message)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_SetupNeededResponse(
                $endpoint, $user_setup_url);
        } else {
            return $this->_doIdRes($message, $endpoint, $return_to);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _checkSetupNeeded($message)
    {
        // In OpenID 1, we check to see if this is a cancel from
        // immediate mode by the presence of the user_setup_url
        // parameter.
        if ($message->isOpenID1()) {
            $user_setup_url = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS,
                                               'user_setup_url');
            if ($user_setup_url !== null) {
                return true;
            }
        }

        return false;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _doIdRes($message, $endpoint, $return_to)
    {
        // Checks for presence of appropriate fields (and checks
        // signed list fields)
        $result = $this->_idResCheckForFields($message);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
            return $result;
        }

        if (!$this->_checkReturnTo($message, $return_to)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
            sprintf("return_to does not match return URL. Expected %s, got %s",
                    $return_to,
                    $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'return_to')));
        }

        // Verify discovery information:
        $result = $this->_verifyDiscoveryResults($message, $endpoint);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
            return $result;
        }

        $endpoint = $result;

        $result = $this->_idResCheckSignature($message,
                                              $endpoint->server_url);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
            return $result;
        }

        $result = $this->_idResCheckNonce($message, $endpoint);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
            return $result;
        }

        $signed_list_str = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'signed',
                                            Auth_OpenID_NO_DEFAULT);
        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($signed_list_str)) {
            return $signed_list_str;
        }
        $signed_list = explode(',', $signed_list_str);

        $signed_fields = Auth_OpenID::addPrefix($signed_list, "openid.");

        return new Auth_OpenID_SuccessResponse($endpoint, $message,
                                               $signed_fields);

    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _checkReturnTo($message, $return_to)
    {
        // Check an OpenID message and its openid.return_to value
        // against a return_to URL from an application.  Return True
        // on success, False on failure.

        // Check the openid.return_to args against args in the
        // original message.
        $result = Auth_OpenID_GenericConsumer::_verifyReturnToArgs(
                                           $message->toPostArgs());
        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
            return false;
        }

        // Check the return_to base URL against the one in the
        // message.
        $msg_return_to = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                          'return_to');
        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($return_to)) {
            // XXX log me
            return false;
        }

        $return_to_parts = parse_url(Auth_OpenID_urinorm($return_to));
        $msg_return_to_parts = parse_url(Auth_OpenID_urinorm($msg_return_to));

        // If port is absent from both, add it so it's equal in the
        // check below.
        if ((!array_key_exists('port', $return_to_parts)) &&
            (!array_key_exists('port', $msg_return_to_parts))) {
            $return_to_parts['port'] = null;
            $msg_return_to_parts['port'] = null;
        }

        // If path is absent from both, add it so it's equal in the
        // check below.
        if ((!array_key_exists('path', $return_to_parts)) &&
            (!array_key_exists('path', $msg_return_to_parts))) {
            $return_to_parts['path'] = null;
            $msg_return_to_parts['path'] = null;
        }

        // The URL scheme, authority, and path MUST be the same
        // between the two URLs.
        foreach (array('scheme', 'host', 'port', 'path') as $component) {
            // If the url component is absent in either URL, fail.
            // There should always be a scheme, host, port, and path.
            if (!array_key_exists($component, $return_to_parts)) {
                return false;
            }

            if (!array_key_exists($component, $msg_return_to_parts)) {
                return false;
            }

            if (Auth_OpenID::arrayGet($return_to_parts, $component) !==
                Auth_OpenID::arrayGet($msg_return_to_parts, $component)) {
                return false;
            }
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _verifyReturnToArgs($query)
    {
        // Verify that the arguments in the return_to URL are present in this
        // response.

        $message = Auth_OpenID_Message::fromPostArgs($query);
        $return_to = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'return_to');

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($return_to)) {
            return $return_to;
        }
        // XXX: this should be checked by _idResCheckForFields
        if (!$return_to) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                           "Response has no return_to");
        }

        $parsed_url = parse_url($return_to);

        $q = array();
        if (array_key_exists('query', $parsed_url)) {
            $rt_query = $parsed_url['query'];
            $q = Auth_OpenID::parse_str($rt_query);
        }

        foreach ($q as $rt_key => $rt_value) {
            if (!array_key_exists($rt_key, $query)) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                  sprintf("return_to parameter %s absent from query", $rt_key));
            } else {
                $value = $query[$rt_key];
                if ($rt_value != $value) {
                    return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                      sprintf("parameter %s value %s does not match " .
                              "return_to value %s", $rt_key,
                              $value, $rt_value));
                }
            }
        }

        // Make sure all non-OpenID arguments in the response are also
        // in the signed return_to.
        $bare_args = $message->getArgs(Auth_OpenID_BARE_NS);
        foreach ($bare_args as $key => $value) {
            if (Auth_OpenID::arrayGet($q, $key) != $value) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                  sprintf("Parameter %s = %s not in return_to URL",
                          $key, $value));
            }
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _idResCheckSignature($message, $server_url)
    {
        $assoc_handle = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                         'assoc_handle');
        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($assoc_handle)) {
            return $assoc_handle;
        }

        $assoc = $this->store->getAssociation($server_url, $assoc_handle);

        if ($assoc) {
            if ($assoc->getExpiresIn() <= 0) {
                // XXX: It might be a good idea sometimes to re-start
                // the authentication with a new association. Doing it
                // automatically opens the possibility for
                // denial-of-service by a server that just returns
                // expired associations (or really short-lived
                // associations)
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                             'Association with ' . $server_url . ' expired');
            }

            if (!$assoc->checkMessageSignature($message)) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                                                       "Bad signature");
            }
        } else {
            // It's not an association we know about.  Stateless mode
            // is our only possible path for recovery.  XXX - async
            // framework will not want to block on this call to
            // _checkAuth.
            if (!$this->_checkAuth($message, $server_url)) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                             "Server denied check_authentication");
            }
        }

        return null;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _verifyDiscoveryResults($message, $endpoint=null)
    {
        if ($message->getOpenIDNamespace() == Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS) {
            return $this->_verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID2($message,
                                                         $endpoint);
        } else {
            return $this->_verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID1($message,
                                                         $endpoint);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID1($message, $endpoint)
    {
        $claimed_id = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_BARE_NS,
                                $this->openid1_return_to_identifier_name);

        if (($endpoint === null) && ($claimed_id === null)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
              'When using OpenID 1, the claimed ID must be supplied, ' .
              'either by passing it through as a return_to parameter ' .
              'or by using a session, and supplied to the GenericConsumer ' .
              'as the argument to complete()');
        } else if (($endpoint !== null) && ($claimed_id === null)) {
            $claimed_id = $endpoint->claimed_id;
        }

        $to_match = new Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpoint();
        $to_match->type_uris = array(Auth_OpenID_TYPE_1_1);
        $to_match->local_id = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS,
                                               'identity');

        // Restore delegate information from the initiation phase
        $to_match->claimed_id = $claimed_id;

        if ($to_match->local_id === null) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                         "Missing required field openid.identity");
        }

        $to_match_1_0 = $to_match->copy();
        $to_match_1_0->type_uris = array(Auth_OpenID_TYPE_1_0);

        if ($endpoint !== null) {
            $result = $this->_verifyDiscoverySingle($endpoint, $to_match);

            if (is_a($result, 'Auth_OpenID_TypeURIMismatch')) {
                $result = $this->_verifyDiscoverySingle($endpoint,
                                                        $to_match_1_0);
            }

            if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
                // oidutil.log("Error attempting to use stored
                //             discovery information: " + str(e))
                //             oidutil.log("Attempting discovery to
                //             verify endpoint")
            } else {
                return $endpoint;
            }
        }

        // Endpoint is either bad (failed verification) or None
        return $this->_discoverAndVerify($to_match->claimed_id,
                                         array($to_match, $to_match_1_0));
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _verifyDiscoverySingle($endpoint, $to_match)
    {
        // Every type URI that's in the to_match endpoint has to be
        // present in the discovered endpoint.
        foreach ($to_match->type_uris as $type_uri) {
            if (!$endpoint->usesExtension($type_uri)) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_TypeURIMismatch($endpoint,
                             "Required type ".$type_uri." not present");
            }
        }

        // Fragments do not influence discovery, so we can't compare a
        // claimed identifier with a fragment to discovered
        // information.
        list($defragged_claimed_id, $_) =
            Auth_OpenID::urldefrag($to_match->claimed_id);

        if ($defragged_claimed_id != $endpoint->claimed_id) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
              sprintf('Claimed ID does not match (different subjects!), ' .
                      'Expected %s, got %s', $defragged_claimed_id,
                      $endpoint->claimed_id));
        }

        if ($to_match->getLocalID() != $endpoint->getLocalID()) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
              sprintf('local_id mismatch. Expected %s, got %s',
                      $to_match->getLocalID(), $endpoint->getLocalID()));
        }

        // If the server URL is None, this must be an OpenID 1
        // response, because op_endpoint is a required parameter in
        // OpenID 2. In that case, we don't actually care what the
        // discovered server_url is, because signature checking or
        // check_auth should take care of that check for us.
        if ($to_match->server_url === null) {
            if ($to_match->preferredNamespace() != Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                             "Preferred namespace mismatch (bug)");
            }
        } else if ($to_match->server_url != $endpoint->server_url) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
              sprintf('OP Endpoint mismatch. Expected %s, got %s',
                      $to_match->server_url, $endpoint->server_url));
        }

        return null;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID2($message, $endpoint)
    {
        $to_match = new Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpoint();
        $to_match->type_uris = array(Auth_OpenID_TYPE_2_0);
        $to_match->claimed_id = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS,
                                                 'claimed_id');

        $to_match->local_id = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS,
                                                'identity');

        $to_match->server_url = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS,
                                                 'op_endpoint');

        if ($to_match->server_url === null) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                         "OP Endpoint URL missing");
        }

        // claimed_id and identifier must both be present or both be
        // absent
        if (($to_match->claimed_id === null) &&
            ($to_match->local_id !== null)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
              'openid.identity is present without openid.claimed_id');
        }

        if (($to_match->claimed_id !== null) &&
            ($to_match->local_id === null)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
              'openid.claimed_id is present without openid.identity');
        }

        if ($to_match->claimed_id === null) {
            // This is a response without identifiers, so there's
            // really no checking that we can do, so return an
            // endpoint that's for the specified `openid.op_endpoint'
            return Auth_OpenID_ServiceEndpoint::fromOPEndpointURL(
                                                $to_match->server_url);
        }

        if (!$endpoint) {
            // The claimed ID doesn't match, so we have to do
            // discovery again. This covers not using sessions, OP
            // identifier endpoints and responses that didn't match
            // the original request.
            // oidutil.log('No pre-discovered information supplied.')
            return $this->_discoverAndVerify($to_match->claimed_id,
                                             array($to_match));
        } else {

            // The claimed ID matches, so we use the endpoint that we
            // discovered in initiation. This should be the most
            // common case.
            $result = $this->_verifyDiscoverySingle($endpoint, $to_match);

            if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
                $endpoint = $this->_discoverAndVerify($to_match->claimed_id,
                                                      array($to_match));
                if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($endpoint)) {
                    return $endpoint;
                }
            }
        }

        // The endpoint we return should have the claimed ID from the
        // message we just verified, fragment and all.
        if ($endpoint->claimed_id != $to_match->claimed_id) {
            $endpoint->claimed_id = $to_match->claimed_id;
        }

        return $endpoint;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _discoverAndVerify($claimed_id, $to_match_endpoints)
    {
        // oidutil.log('Performing discovery on %s' % (claimed_id,))
        list($unused, $services) = call_user_func($this->discoverMethod,
                                                  $claimed_id,
                                                  $this->fetcher);

        if (!$services) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
              sprintf("No OpenID information found at %s",
                      $claimed_id));
        }

        return $this->_verifyDiscoveryServices($claimed_id, $services,
                                               $to_match_endpoints);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _verifyDiscoveryServices($claimed_id, 
                                      &$services, &$to_match_endpoints)
    {
        // Search the services resulting from discovery to find one
        // that matches the information from the assertion

        foreach ($services as $endpoint) {
            foreach ($to_match_endpoints as $to_match_endpoint) {
                $result = $this->_verifyDiscoverySingle($endpoint, 
                                                        $to_match_endpoint);

                if (!Auth_OpenID::isFailure($result)) {
                    // It matches, so discover verification has
                    // succeeded. Return this endpoint.
                    return $endpoint;
                }
            }
        }

        return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
          sprintf('No matching endpoint found after discovering %s',
                  $claimed_id));
    }

    /**
     * Extract the nonce from an OpenID 1 response.  Return the nonce
     * from the BARE_NS since we independently check the return_to
     * arguments are the same as those in the response message.
     *
     * See the openid1_nonce_query_arg_name class variable
     *
     * @returns $nonce The nonce as a string or null
     *
     * @access private
     */
    function _idResGetNonceOpenID1($message, $endpoint)
    {
        return $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_BARE_NS,
                                $this->openid1_nonce_query_arg_name);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _idResCheckNonce($message, $endpoint)
    {
        if ($message->isOpenID1()) {
            // This indicates that the nonce was generated by the consumer
            $nonce = $this->_idResGetNonceOpenID1($message, $endpoint);
            $server_url = '';
        } else {
            $nonce = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS,
                                      'response_nonce');

            $server_url = $endpoint->server_url;
        }

        if ($nonce === null) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                                     "Nonce missing from response");
        }

        $parts = Auth_OpenID_splitNonce($nonce);

        if ($parts === null) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                                     "Malformed nonce in response");
        }

        list($timestamp, $salt) = $parts;

        if (!$this->store->useNonce($server_url, $timestamp, $salt)) {
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint,
                         "Nonce already used or out of range");
        }

        return null;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _idResCheckForFields($message)
    {
        $basic_fields = array('return_to', 'assoc_handle', 'sig', 'signed');
        $basic_sig_fields = array('return_to', 'identity');

        $require_fields = array(
            Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS => array_merge($basic_fields,
                                                  array('op_endpoint')),

            Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS => array_merge($basic_fields,
                                                  array('identity'))
            );

        $require_sigs = array(
            Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS => array_merge($basic_sig_fields,
                                                  array('response_nonce',
                                                        'claimed_id',
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                                                        'assoc_handle',
                                                        'op_endpoint')),
1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159 2160 2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 2166 2167 2168 2169 2170 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175 2176 2177 2178 2179 2180 2181 2182 2183 2184 2185 2186 2187 2188 2189 2190 2191 2192 2193 2194 2195 2196 2197 2198 2199 2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207 2208 2209 2210 2211 2212 2213 2214 2215 2216 2217 2218 2219 2220 2221 2222 2223 2224 2225 2226 2227 2228 2229 2230
            Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS => array_merge($basic_sig_fields,
                                                  array('nonce'))
            );

        foreach ($require_fields[$message->getOpenIDNamespace()] as $field) {
            if (!$message->hasKey(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, $field)) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                             "Missing required field '".$field."'");
            }
        }

        $signed_list_str = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                            'signed',
                                            Auth_OpenID_NO_DEFAULT);
        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($signed_list_str)) {
            return $signed_list_str;
        }
        $signed_list = explode(',', $signed_list_str);

        foreach ($require_sigs[$message->getOpenIDNamespace()] as $field) {
            // Field is present and not in signed list
            if ($message->hasKey(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, $field) &&
                (!in_array($field, $signed_list))) {
                return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
                             "'".$field."' not signed");
            }
        }

        return null;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _checkAuth($message, $server_url)
    {
        $request = $this->_createCheckAuthRequest($message);
        if ($request === null) {
            return false;
        }

        $resp_message = $this->_makeKVPost($request, $server_url);
        if (($resp_message === null) ||
            (is_a($resp_message, 'Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer'))) {
            return false;
        }

        return $this->_processCheckAuthResponse($resp_message, $server_url);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _createCheckAuthRequest($message)
    {
        $signed = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'signed');
        if ($signed) {
            foreach (explode(',', $signed) as $k) {
                $value = $message->getAliasedArg($k);
                if ($value === null) {
                    return null;
                }
            }
        }
        $ca_message = $message->copy();
        $ca_message->setArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'mode', 
                            'check_authentication');
        return $ca_message;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _processCheckAuthResponse($response, $server_url)
    {
        $is_valid = $response->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'is_valid',
                                      'false');

        $invalidate_handle = $response->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                               'invalidate_handle');

        if ($invalidate_handle !== null) {
            $this->store->removeAssociation($server_url,
                                            $invalidate_handle);
        }

        if ($is_valid == 'true') {
            return true;
        }

        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Adapt a POST response to a Message.
     *
     * @param $response Result of a POST to an OpenID endpoint.
     *
     * @access private
     */
    function _httpResponseToMessage($response, $server_url)
    {
        // Should this function be named Message.fromHTTPResponse instead?
        $response_message = Auth_OpenID_Message::fromKVForm($response->body);

        if ($response->status == 400) {
            return Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer::fromMessage(
                        $response_message);
        } else if ($response->status != 200 and $response->status != 206) {
            return null;
        }

        return $response_message;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _makeKVPost($message, $server_url)
    {
        $body = $message->toURLEncoded();
        $resp = $this->fetcher->post($server_url, $body);

        if ($resp === null) {
            return null;
        }

        return $this->_httpResponseToMessage($resp, $server_url);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _getAssociation($endpoint)
    {
        if (!$this->_use_assocs) {
            return null;
        }

        $assoc = $this->store->getAssociation($endpoint->server_url);

        if (($assoc === null) ||
            ($assoc->getExpiresIn() <= 0)) {

            $assoc = $this->_negotiateAssociation($endpoint);

            if ($assoc !== null) {
                $this->store->storeAssociation($endpoint->server_url,
                                               $assoc);
            }
        }

        return $assoc;
    }

    /**
     * Handle ServerErrors resulting from association requests.
     *
     * @return $result If server replied with an C{unsupported-type}
     * error, return a tuple of supported C{association_type},
     * C{session_type}.  Otherwise logs the error and returns null.
     *
     * @access private
     */
    function _extractSupportedAssociationType(&$server_error, &$endpoint,
                                              $assoc_type)
    {
        // Any error message whose code is not 'unsupported-type'
        // should be considered a total failure.
        if (($server_error->error_code != 'unsupported-type') ||
            ($server_error->message->isOpenID1())) {
            return null;
        }

        // The server didn't like the association/session type that we
        // sent, and it sent us back a message that might tell us how
        // to handle it.

        // Extract the session_type and assoc_type from the error
        // message
        $assoc_type = $server_error->message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                                     'assoc_type');

        $session_type = $server_error->message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                                                       'session_type');

        if (($assoc_type === null) || ($session_type === null)) {
            return null;
        } else if (!$this->negotiator->isAllowed($assoc_type,
                                                 $session_type)) {
            return null;
        } else {
          return array($assoc_type, $session_type);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _negotiateAssociation($endpoint)
    {
        // Get our preferred session/association type from the negotiatior.
        list($assoc_type, $session_type) = $this->negotiator->getAllowedType();

        $assoc = $this->_requestAssociation(
                           $endpoint, $assoc_type, $session_type);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($assoc)) {
            return null;
        }

        if (is_a($assoc, 'Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer')) {
            $why = $assoc;

            $supportedTypes = $this->_extractSupportedAssociationType(
                                     $why, $endpoint, $assoc_type);

            if ($supportedTypes !== null) {
                list($assoc_type, $session_type) = $supportedTypes;

                // Attempt to create an association from the assoc_type
                // and session_type that the server told us it
                // supported.
                $assoc = $this->_requestAssociation(
                                   $endpoint, $assoc_type, $session_type);

                if (is_a($assoc, 'Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer')) {
                    // Do not keep trying, since it rejected the
                    // association type that it told us to use.
                    // oidutil.log('Server %s refused its suggested association
                    //             'type: session_type=%s, assoc_type=%s'
                    //             % (endpoint.server_url, session_type,
                    //                assoc_type))
                    return null;
                } else {
                    return $assoc;
                }
            } else {
                return null;
            }
        } else {
            return $assoc;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _requestAssociation($endpoint, $assoc_type, $session_type)
    {
        list($assoc_session, $args) = $this->_createAssociateRequest(
                                      $endpoint, $assoc_type, $session_type);

        $response_message = $this->_makeKVPost($args, $endpoint->server_url);

        if ($response_message === null) {
            // oidutil.log('openid.associate request failed: %s' % (why[0],))
            return null;
        } else if (is_a($response_message,
                        'Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer')) {
            return $response_message;
        }

        return $this->_extractAssociation($response_message, $assoc_session);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _extractAssociation(&$assoc_response, &$assoc_session)
    {
        // Extract the common fields from the response, raising an
        // exception if they are not found
        $assoc_type = $assoc_response->getArg(
                         Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'assoc_type',
                         Auth_OpenID_NO_DEFAULT);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($assoc_type)) {
            return $assoc_type;
        }

        $assoc_handle = $assoc_response->getArg(
                           Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'assoc_handle',
                           Auth_OpenID_NO_DEFAULT);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($assoc_handle)) {
            return $assoc_handle;
        }

        // expires_in is a base-10 string. The Python parsing will
        // accept literals that have whitespace around them and will
        // accept negative values. Neither of these are really in-spec,
        // but we think it's OK to accept them.
        $expires_in_str = $assoc_response->getArg(
                             Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'expires_in',
                             Auth_OpenID_NO_DEFAULT);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($expires_in_str)) {
            return $expires_in_str;
        }

        $expires_in = Auth_OpenID::intval($expires_in_str);
        if ($expires_in === false) {
            
            $err = sprintf("Could not parse expires_in from association ".
                           "response %s", print_r($assoc_response, true));
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null, $err);
        }

        // OpenID 1 has funny association session behaviour.
        if ($assoc_response->isOpenID1()) {
            $session_type = $this->_getOpenID1SessionType($assoc_response);
        } else {
            $session_type = $assoc_response->getArg(
                               Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS, 'session_type',
                               Auth_OpenID_NO_DEFAULT);

            if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($session_type)) {
                return $session_type;
            }
        }

        // Session type mismatch
        if ($assoc_session->session_type != $session_type) {
            if ($assoc_response->isOpenID1() &&
                ($session_type == 'no-encryption')) {
                // In OpenID 1, any association request can result in
                // a 'no-encryption' association response. Setting
                // assoc_session to a new no-encryption session should
                // make the rest of this function work properly for
                // that case.
                $assoc_session = new Auth_OpenID_PlainTextConsumerSession();
            } else {
                // Any other mismatch, regardless of protocol version
                // results in the failure of the association session
                // altogether.
                return null;
            }
        }

        // Make sure assoc_type is valid for session_type
        if (!in_array($assoc_type, $assoc_session->allowed_assoc_types)) {
            return null;
        }

        // Delegate to the association session to extract the secret
        // from the response, however is appropriate for that session
        // type.
        $secret = $assoc_session->extractSecret($assoc_response);

        if ($secret === null) {
            return null;
        }

        return Auth_OpenID_Association::fromExpiresIn(
                 $expires_in, $assoc_handle, $secret, $assoc_type);
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function _createAssociateRequest($endpoint, $assoc_type, $session_type)
    {
        if (array_key_exists($session_type, $this->session_types)) {
            $session_type_class = $this->session_types[$session_type];

            if (is_callable($session_type_class)) {
                $assoc_session = $session_type_class();
            } else {
                $assoc_session = new $session_type_class();
            }
        } else {
            return null;
        }

        $args = array(
            'mode' => 'associate',
            'assoc_type' => $assoc_type);

        if (!$endpoint->compatibilityMode()) {
            $args['ns'] = Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS;
        }

        // Leave out the session type if we're in compatibility mode
        // *and* it's no-encryption.
        if ((!$endpoint->compatibilityMode()) ||
            ($assoc_session->session_type != 'no-encryption')) {
            $args['session_type'] = $assoc_session->session_type;
        }

        $args = array_merge($args, $assoc_session->getRequest());
        $message = Auth_OpenID_Message::fromOpenIDArgs($args);
        return array($assoc_session, $message);
    }

    /**
     * Given an association response message, extract the OpenID 1.X
     * session type.
     *
     * This function mostly takes care of the 'no-encryption' default
     * behavior in OpenID 1.
     *
     * If the association type is plain-text, this function will
     * return 'no-encryption'
     *
     * @access private
     * @return $typ The association type for this message
     */
    function _getOpenID1SessionType($assoc_response)
    {
        // If it's an OpenID 1 message, allow session_type to default
        // to None (which signifies "no-encryption")
        $session_type = $assoc_response->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID1_NS,
                                                'session_type');

        // Handle the differences between no-encryption association
        // respones in OpenID 1 and 2:

        // no-encryption is not really a valid session type for OpenID
        // 1, but we'll accept it anyway, while issuing a warning.
        if ($session_type == 'no-encryption') {
            // oidutil.log('WARNING: OpenID server sent "no-encryption"'
            //             'for OpenID 1.X')
        } else if (($session_type == '') || ($session_type === null)) {
            // Missing or empty session type is the way to flag a
            // 'no-encryption' response. Change the session type to
            // 'no-encryption' so that it can be handled in the same
            // way as OpenID 2 'no-encryption' respones.
            $session_type = 'no-encryption';
        }

        return $session_type;
    }
}

/**
 * This class represents an authentication request from a consumer to
 * an OpenID server.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest {

    /**
     * Initialize an authentication request with the specified token,
     * association, and endpoint.
     *
     * Users of this library should not create instances of this
     * class.  Instances of this class are created by the library when
     * needed.
     */
    function Auth_OpenID_AuthRequest(&$endpoint, $assoc)
    {
        $this->assoc = $assoc;
        $this->endpoint =& $endpoint;
        $this->return_to_args = array();
        $this->message = new Auth_OpenID_Message(
            $endpoint->preferredNamespace());
        $this->_anonymous = false;
    }

    /**
     * Add an extension to this checkid request.
     *
     * $extension_request: An object that implements the extension
     * request interface for adding arguments to an OpenID message.
     */
    function addExtension(&$extension_request)
    {
        $extension_request->toMessage($this->message);
    }

    /**
     * Add an extension argument to this OpenID authentication
     * request.
     *
     * Use caution when adding arguments, because they will be
     * URL-escaped and appended to the redirect URL, which can easily
     * get quite long.
     *
     * @param string $namespace The namespace for the extension. For
     * example, the simple registration extension uses the namespace
     * 'sreg'.
     *
     * @param string $key The key within the extension namespace. For
     * example, the nickname field in the simple registration
     * extension's key is 'nickname'.
     *
     * @param string $value The value to provide to the server for
     * this argument.
     */
    function addExtensionArg($namespace, $key, $value)
    {
        return $this->message->setArg($namespace, $key, $value);
    }

    /**
     * Set whether this request should be made anonymously. If a
     * request is anonymous, the identifier will not be sent in the
     * request. This is only useful if you are making another kind of
     * request with an extension in this request.
     *
     * Anonymous requests are not allowed when the request is made
     * with OpenID 1.
     */
    function setAnonymous($is_anonymous)
    {
        if ($is_anonymous && $this->message->isOpenID1()) {
            return false;
        } else {
            $this->_anonymous = $is_anonymous;
            return true;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Produce a {@link Auth_OpenID_Message} representing this
     * request.
     *
     * @param string $realm The URL (or URL pattern) that identifies
     * your web site to the user when she is authorizing it.
     *
     * @param string $return_to The URL that the OpenID provider will
     * send the user back to after attempting to verify her identity.
     *
     * Not specifying a return_to URL means that the user will not be
     * returned to the site issuing the request upon its completion.
     *
     * @param bool $immediate If true, the OpenID provider is to send
     * back a response immediately, useful for behind-the-scenes
     * authentication attempts.  Otherwise the OpenID provider may
     * engage the user before providing a response.  This is the
     * default case, as the user may need to provide credentials or
     * approve the request before a positive response can be sent.
     */
    function getMessage($realm, $return_to=null, $immediate=false)
    {
        if ($return_to) {
            $return_to = Auth_OpenID::appendArgs($return_to,
                                                 $this->return_to_args);
        } else if ($immediate) {
            // raise ValueError(
            //     '"return_to" is mandatory when
            //using "checkid_immediate"')
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
              "'return_to' is mandatory when using checkid_immediate");
        } else if ($this->message->isOpenID1()) {
            // raise ValueError('"return_to" is
            // mandatory for OpenID 1 requests')
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
              "'return_to' is mandatory for OpenID 1 requests");
        } else if ($this->return_to_args) {
            // raise ValueError('extra "return_to" arguments
            // were specified, but no return_to was specified')
            return new Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse(null,
              "extra 'return_to' arguments where specified, " .
              "but no return_to was specified");
        }

        if ($immediate) {
            $mode = 'checkid_immediate';
        } else {
            $mode = 'checkid_setup';
        }

        $message = $this->message->copy();
        if ($message->isOpenID1()) {
            $realm_key = 'trust_root';
        } else {
            $realm_key = 'realm';
        }

        $message->updateArgs(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS,
                             array(
                                   $realm_key => $realm,
                                   'mode' => $mode,
                                   'return_to' => $return_to));

        if (!$this->_anonymous) {
            if ($this->endpoint->isOPIdentifier()) {
                // This will never happen when we're in compatibility
                // mode, as long as isOPIdentifier() returns False
                // whenever preferredNamespace() returns OPENID1_NS.
                $claimed_id = $request_identity =
                    Auth_OpenID_IDENTIFIER_SELECT;
            } else {
                $request_identity = $this->endpoint->getLocalID();
                $claimed_id = $this->endpoint->claimed_id;
            }

            // This is true for both OpenID 1 and 2
            $message->setArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'identity',
                             $request_identity);

            if ($message->isOpenID2()) {
                $message->setArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID2_NS, 'claimed_id',
                                 $claimed_id);
            }
        }

        if ($this->assoc) {
            $message->setArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'assoc_handle',
                             $this->assoc->handle);
        }

        return $message;
    }

    function redirectURL($realm, $return_to = null,
                         $immediate = false)
    {
        $message = $this->getMessage($realm, $return_to, $immediate);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($message)) {
            return $message;
        }

        return $message->toURL($this->endpoint->server_url);
    }

    /**
     * Get html for a form to submit this request to the IDP.
     *
     * form_tag_attrs: An array of attributes to be added to the form
     * tag. 'accept-charset' and 'enctype' have defaults that can be
     * overridden. If a value is supplied for 'action' or 'method', it
     * will be replaced.
     */
    function formMarkup($realm, $return_to=null, $immediate=false,
                        $form_tag_attrs=null)
    {
        $message = $this->getMessage($realm, $return_to, $immediate);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($message)) {
            return $message;
        }

        return $message->toFormMarkup($this->endpoint->server_url,
                                      $form_tag_attrs);
    }

    /**
     * Get a complete html document that will autosubmit the request
     * to the IDP.
     *
     * Wraps formMarkup.  See the documentation for that function.
     */
    function htmlMarkup($realm, $return_to=null, $immediate=false,
                        $form_tag_attrs=null)
    {
        $form = $this->formMarkup($realm, $return_to, $immediate, 
                                  $form_tag_attrs);

        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($form)) {
            return $form;
        }
        return Auth_OpenID::autoSubmitHTML($form);
    }

    function shouldSendRedirect()
    {
        return $this->endpoint->compatibilityMode();
    }
}

/**
 * The base class for responses from the Auth_OpenID_Consumer.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse {
    var $status = null;

    function setEndpoint($endpoint)
    {
        $this->endpoint = $endpoint;
        if ($endpoint === null) {
            $this->identity_url = null;
        } else {
            $this->identity_url = $endpoint->claimed_id;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Return the display identifier for this response.
     *
     * The display identifier is related to the Claimed Identifier, but the
     * two are not always identical.  The display identifier is something the
     * user should recognize as what they entered, whereas the response's
     * claimed identifier (in the identity_url attribute) may have extra
     * information for better persistence.
     *
     * URLs will be stripped of their fragments for display.  XRIs will
     * display the human-readable identifier (i-name) instead of the
     * persistent identifier (i-number).
     *
     * Use the display identifier in your user interface.  Use
     * identity_url for querying your database or authorization server.
     *
     */
    function getDisplayIdentifier()
    {
        if ($this->endpoint !== null) {
            return $this->endpoint->getDisplayIdentifier();
        }
        return null;
    }
}

/**
 * A response with a status of Auth_OpenID_SUCCESS. Indicates that
 * this request is a successful acknowledgement from the OpenID server
 * that the supplied URL is, indeed controlled by the requesting
 * agent.  This has three relevant attributes:
 *
 * claimed_id - The identity URL that has been authenticated
 *
 * signed_args - The arguments in the server's response that were
 * signed and verified.
 *
 * status - Auth_OpenID_SUCCESS.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_SuccessResponse extends Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse {
    var $status = Auth_OpenID_SUCCESS;

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function Auth_OpenID_SuccessResponse($endpoint, $message, $signed_args=null)
    {
        $this->endpoint = $endpoint;
        $this->identity_url = $endpoint->claimed_id;
        $this->signed_args = $signed_args;
        $this->message = $message;

        if ($this->signed_args === null) {
            $this->signed_args = array();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Extract signed extension data from the server's response.
     *
     * @param string $prefix The extension namespace from which to
     * extract the extension data.
     */
    function extensionResponse($namespace_uri, $require_signed)
    {
        if ($require_signed) {
            return $this->getSignedNS($namespace_uri);
        } else {
            return $this->message->getArgs($namespace_uri);
        }
    }

    function isOpenID1()
    {
        return $this->message->isOpenID1();
    }

    function isSigned($ns_uri, $ns_key)
    {
        // Return whether a particular key is signed, regardless of
        // its namespace alias
        return in_array($this->message->getKey($ns_uri, $ns_key),
                        $this->signed_args);
    }

    function getSigned($ns_uri, $ns_key, $default = null)
    {
        // Return the specified signed field if available, otherwise
        // return default
        if ($this->isSigned($ns_uri, $ns_key)) {
            return $this->message->getArg($ns_uri, $ns_key, $default);
        } else {
            return $default;
        }
    }

    function getSignedNS($ns_uri)
    {
        $args = array();

        $msg_args = $this->message->getArgs($ns_uri);
        if (Auth_OpenID::isFailure($msg_args)) {
            return null;
        }

        foreach ($msg_args as $key => $value) {
            if (!$this->isSigned($ns_uri, $key)) {
                return null;
            }
        }

        return $msg_args;
    }

    /**
     * Get the openid.return_to argument from this response.
     *
     * This is useful for verifying that this request was initiated by
     * this consumer.
     *
     * @return string $return_to The return_to URL supplied to the
     * server on the initial request, or null if the response did not
     * contain an 'openid.return_to' argument.
    */
    function getReturnTo()
    {
        return $this->getSigned(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'return_to');
    }
}

/**
 * A response with a status of Auth_OpenID_FAILURE. Indicates that the
 * OpenID protocol has failed. This could be locally or remotely
 * triggered.  This has three relevant attributes:
 *
 * claimed_id - The identity URL for which authentication was
 * attempted, if it can be determined.  Otherwise, null.
 *
 * message - A message indicating why the request failed, if one is
 * supplied.  Otherwise, null.
 *
 * status - Auth_OpenID_FAILURE.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse extends Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse {
    var $status = Auth_OpenID_FAILURE;

    function Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse($endpoint, $message = null,
                                         $contact = null, $reference = null)
    {
        $this->setEndpoint($endpoint);
        $this->message = $message;
        $this->contact = $contact;
        $this->reference = $reference;
    }
}

/**
 * A specific, internal failure used to detect type URI mismatch.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_TypeURIMismatch extends Auth_OpenID_FailureResponse {
}

/**
 * Exception that is raised when the server returns a 400 response
 * code to a direct request.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer {
    function Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer($error_text,
                                              $error_code,
                                              $message)
    {
        $this->error_text = $error_text;
        $this->error_code = $error_code;
        $this->message = $message;
    }

    /**
     * @access private
     */
    function fromMessage($message)
    {
        $error_text = $message->getArg(
           Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'error', '<no error message supplied>');
        $error_code = $message->getArg(Auth_OpenID_OPENID_NS, 'error_code');
        return new Auth_OpenID_ServerErrorContainer($error_text,
                                                    $error_code,
                                                    $message);
    }
}

/**
 * A response with a status of Auth_OpenID_CANCEL. Indicates that the
 * user cancelled the OpenID authentication request.  This has two
 * relevant attributes:
 *
 * claimed_id - The identity URL for which authentication was
 * attempted, if it can be determined.  Otherwise, null.
 *
 * status - Auth_OpenID_SUCCESS.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_CancelResponse extends Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse {
    var $status = Auth_OpenID_CANCEL;

    function Auth_OpenID_CancelResponse($endpoint)
    {
        $this->setEndpoint($endpoint);
    }
}

/**
 * A response with a status of Auth_OpenID_SETUP_NEEDED. Indicates
 * that the request was in immediate mode, and the server is unable to
 * authenticate the user without further interaction.
 *
 * claimed_id - The identity URL for which authentication was
 * attempted.
 *
 * setup_url - A URL that can be used to send the user to the server
 * to set up for authentication. The user should be redirected in to
 * the setup_url, either in the current window or in a new browser
 * window.  Null in OpenID 2.
 *
 * status - Auth_OpenID_SETUP_NEEDED.
 *
 * @package OpenID
 */
class Auth_OpenID_SetupNeededResponse extends Auth_OpenID_ConsumerResponse {
    var $status = Auth_OpenID_SETUP_NEEDED;

    function Auth_OpenID_SetupNeededResponse($endpoint,
                                             $setup_url = null)
    {
        $this->setEndpoint($endpoint);
        $this->setup_url = $setup_url;
    }
}

?>